Chain of custody
A time-ordered sequence of parties who take physical custody of an object or collection of objects as it moves through a supply chain network.
Chain of ownership
A time-ordered sequence of parties who take legal possession of an object or collection of objects as it moves through a supply chain network.
Critical Tracking Event (CTE)
A record of completion of a step in the business process in a supply chain, that is critical to record and share, in order to ensure end-to-end traceability.
Key Data Element (KDE)
Those data required to be present in a CTE to accurately represent what occurred in the step of a business process, in order to ensure traceability.
An organisation or individual acting as an entity in a supply chain. Parties may play multiple different roles in the supply chain.
A supply chain is a system of organisations and business processes that are involved in the manufacture, distribution and maintenance of a product or asset.
Supply chain visibility
The awareness of, and control over, specific information related to product orders and physical shipments, including transport and logistics activities and the statuses of events and milestones that occur prior to and in-transit. [Aberdeen Group]
Traceability is the ability to trace the history, application or location of an object [ISO 9005:2015]. When considering a product or a service traceability can relate to:
■ the origin of materials and parts;
■ the processing history;
■ the distribution and location of the product or service after delivery.
For practical reasons, “trace” or “track and trace” may be used as equivalent terms to designate the action of ensuring the traceability.
The system used by an individual party to manage traceability in its supply chain(s). A traceability system includes mechanisms for the identification of objects and for the capture of information about observations of those objects over time as they move between locations or participate in various business processes.
A party that has been selected to be in scope of a traceability system. Parties in scope of traceability systems may include those that take custody of traceable objects, those that take ownership of traceable objects, those that inspect traceable objects, those that insure traceable objects, etc. End-customers (including consumers and patients) will often not be treated as traceability parties, since they do not necessarily carry a traceability responsibility and very often remain unknown to the other traceability parties.
A traceability location is a designated physical area that has been selected to be in scope of a traceability system.
A traceable object is a physical or digital object whose supply chain path can and needs to be determined.
Tracing is the capability to identify the origin and characteristics or history of a particular traceable object upstream (through earlier observations) based on data recorded at defined points of the supply chain. Trace or Tracing backward or ascending traceability
Tracking is the capability to locate or follow the path of a particular traceable object downstream (through later observations) based on data recorded at defined points of the supply chain. Track forward or descending traceability
Transparency refers to the need to ensure visibility and access to accurate information across supply chains (inclusive of consumers), including the provision of relevant traceability data to trading partners and consumers in a spirit of openness.
Visibility is the ability to know exactly where things are at any point in time, or where they have been, and why.
Visibility event data
Visibility event data are records of the completion of business process steps in which physical or digital entities are handled. [ARCH]
Each visibility event captures what objects participated in the process, when the process took place, where the objects were and will be afterwards, and why (that is, what was the business context in which the process took place).